Developmental dsyplasia of the hip or DDH

Developmental dsyplasia of the hip or DDH is a problem with a dislocation of the hip joint develops. The condition is usually present from birth or young children.

DDH occurs in about 1 of 100 births. It is more common in the left hip. In about 2 in 10 cases, DDH affects both hips. Continue reading



The testing of urine for the presence of ketonuria is an essential part of diabetes monitoring. Ketone acids include acetoacetic acid anda beta hydroxybutyric acid. Acetoacetic acid spontaneously degrades to form a molecule of acetone and carbon dioxide. The currently available clinical tests only measure acetoacetic acid,yet the levels of beta-hydroxy butyric acid are usually four times that of acetoacetic acid. During hypoxia, severe shock or when there is lactic acidosis, this ratio may be greatly increased and a measure of the acetoacetic acid level may greatly underestimate the actual total level of ketone acids. Continue reading

Tetralogy of Fallot or TOF

Tetralogy of Fallot or TOF is the most common heart defect in children that occur due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during the first 8 week of pregnancy.  TOF is one of hearth lesions in which the primary defect is an anterior deviation of the infundibular septum. The 4 abnormalities of the heart described by Fallot include the following; pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect( VSD ), overriding aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy Continue reading


Hypoglycaemia means an abnormally low level of sugar(glucose) in the blood-usually under 4.0 mmol/L.

Hypoglycaemia symptoms include; weakness, headache, visual disturbance, slurred speech, vertigo and dizziness, difficulty in thinking, drowsiness, change in affect, mental confusion, coma, convulsion Continue reading

Syncope – The Results From Brain Hypoperfusion

Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness and postura tone that a manifestation of hypotension due to cardiac cause ( asystole, third-degree heart block, tachyarrhytmias, outflow obstruction,myocardial infarction) ,low intravascular volume (dehydration,blood loss, addison’s disease), or excessive vasodilation. Syncope results from brain hypoperfusion.

Patients often report visual symptoms such as blurred and graying out before syncope. Patients also feel light-headedness and appear pale or is sweating. Continue reading

The Major Cause Of Accidental Death, Drowning

In the United State, drowning is major cause of accidental death. The number of deaths may rise to 50 per day during summer vacation weekends. Twenty five percent of drowning victims are teenagers, 20% are less than 10 years of age, 10% occur in each decade of life from age 20 to age 70,and has resulted in 5500 deaths yearly for the last four decades. In adult, 40% of the cases of adult drowning is caused by alcohol ingestion.

Hypoxemia and aspiration are the effects of drowning. The physiology effects of aspiration differ acording to whether the drownimg medium:

  • Fresh water or salt water.
  • Hypotonic or hypertonic.

In the fresh water, the fluid is rapidly absorbed from the alveoli, producing intravascular hypervolemia, hypotonicity, dilution of serum electrolytes, and intravascular hemolysis. Three minutes after fresh water aspiration, the intravascular volume may increase 50%. The direct injury to pulmonary surfactant results in increased surface tension and damage to the pulmonary capillary membrane that can result in a form of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. In the later, infection can occur because debris and microorganisms in the alveoli. Continue reading

Headache is on of the most common symptoms ecountered by physicians

Headache is on of the most common symptoms ecountered by physicians. Headache is a symptom of a number conditions of the head that defined as pain or discomfort in the head, scalp or neck. Seventy percent of the population have headaches at some time.

Headache is caused by a disturbance of the pain-sensitive structures in the head. The brain in itself is not sensitive to pain, because it lacks nociceptors. Several areas of the head and neck have the pain-sensitive structures. The pain-sensitivd structures are divided in 2; within the cranium (blood vessels, meninges, and the cranial nerves) and outside the cranium (the periosteum of the skull, muscles, nerves, arteries and veins, subcutaneous tissues,eyes,ears, sinuses and mucous membranes).

Irritation of the pain-sensitive structures relays nociceptive information to the brain by cranial nerve V or by the upper cervical roots. Sensory of thf CN V ; opthalmic division, maxilary division, and mandibular division Continue reading