Hypoglycaemia means an abnormally low level of sugar(glucose) in the blood-usually under 4.0 mmol/L.

Hypoglycaemia symptoms include; weakness, headache, visual disturbance, slurred speech, vertigo and dizziness, difficulty in thinking, drowsiness, change in affect, mental confusion, coma, convulsion

Severe hypoglycaemia occurs in 5-10 percent of children and adolescents per year. The increased risk of hypoglycaemia in adolescence may be related to:

  1. The need for larger insulin doses during the phase of rapid growth.
  2. Irregular diet.
  3. Irregular activity levels

Consequences of Hypoglycaemia

  1. Direct effect of hypoglycaemia on the brain.
    Cognitive deficits,particularly in visuo spatial tasks,and lower IQ score have been reported in children who have developed diabetes before the age of 5 years.
  2. Injury or accident during a hypoglycaemic episode.
  3. Death.
    Hypoglycaemia is rarely a direct cause of death

Treatment of Hypoglycaemia

  1. Mild to moderate hypoglycaemia.
    Treatment involves immediate consumption of 10-20 grams of a rapidly digested form of carbohydrate, followed by a snack of more slowly digested carbohydrate to maintain normoglycaemia until the next meal or snack
  2. Severe hypoglycaemia
    For severe hypoglycaemia therapy is urgent. People who are either unconscious on fitting are unable to swallow. Nothing should be given by mouth. The airway should be checked to ensure that respiration is unhampered and the person should be placed on their side to prevent aspiration of material into the lungs.

Parents are taught to administer glucagon by injection at a dose of 0.5 units in children under the age of 5 years and 1.0 unit for all older age groups.(dr. rendra)

Source: Hypoglycaemia @ HealthyCase

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